Gum diseases describe disorders characterized by bleeding, tingling, tenderness and withdrawal of the gums due to local or general causes. Local reasons include lack of oral hygiene, tooth deficiencies and the presence of uncleaned areas due to perplexity, etc. General causes are mostly due to diabetes and some drugs used. For gum disorders, dental calculus cleaning is usually followed by curettage according to the case. In advanced cases, periodontal surgical procedures can be performed to keep the mobile teeth in the mouth longer. In the context of cosmetic dentistry, plastic periodontal surgical procedures are routinely used in smile design.

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